Koi & Pond Fish
Family: Cyprinidae
Origins:  They are believed to have originated from Eastern Asia, Aral, Black and Caspian Seas. Earliest records of Koi have been found in China and have been widely spread in Korea and Japan. The ornamental cultivation of carp flourished under the Chinese Qing Dynasty, Korean Silla Dynasty, and Japanese Edo Period. They are very closely related to goldfish and, in fact, the style of breeding and ornamentation has become very similar, probably through the efforts of Japanese breeders to emulate goldfish
Scientific Name:
Common Name: Koi
Size: 36"
Preferred pH range:  6.8 – 7.2
Temperature Range: 72-78 F
Temperment: Community / Peaceful
Comments:  Koi have many different colors. Some of the major colors are white, black, red, yellow, blue, and cream.

While possible variations are limitless, breeders have identified and named a number of specific categories. The most popular category is Gosanke. The Gosanke category is made up of the Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku, and Showa Sanshoku varieties. The Japanese breeders have many generations of knowledge and experience when it comes to breeding and raising Nishikigoi. They know which ones will be worth hundreds of dollars and which ones will be worth thousands of dollars.

The major named varieties include:

Kohaku - a white-skinned Koi, with a red pattern
Taisho Sanshoku (Sanke) - a white-skinned Koi with a red and black pattern
Showa Sanshoku (Showa) - a black-skinned Koi with a red and white pattern
Tancho - Any koi with the only red being in a circle on its forehead. The fish can be a Tancho Showa, Tancho Sanke, or even Tancho Goshiki
Asagi - a Koi with light blue scales on its top and red scales on its bottom
Shusui - the partially scaled version of an Asagi
Bekko - a white, red, or yellow-skinned Koi with a black pattern
Utsurimono - a black Koi with a red, white, or yellow pattern
Goshiki - a mostly black Koi with red, white, brown, and blue accents
Ogon - a Koi that is one solid color, can be regular or metallic; known colors - red, orange, platinum, yellow and cream
Kin Gin Rin - a Koi with shiny scales. The name translates into English as "Gold Silver Scales" There are also Gin Rin versions of almost any other type of koi.
Kawarimono (kawarigoi) - Miscellaneous types of Koi
Doitsu-goi - German Carp
Koromo - Koi with areas of blue-edged scales aligned neatly
Hikari-Moyomono - Koi with coloured patterns over a metallic base, and koi in two metallic colours
Ghost koi - "Hybrid" of Ogon and wild carp. Not Nishikigoi.
Butterfly koi - Long-finned version of all others. Not Nishikigoi.
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Koi
Family:  Cyprinidae
Origins:  Asia: central Asia and China, and Japan
Scientific Name: Carassius auratus auratus
Common Name:  Common Goldfish
Size: 22"
Preferred pH range:  6.0 – 8.0
Temperature Range: 50-78 F  will hibernate under 50 F
Temperment: Community / Peaceful
Comments:  Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches with stagnant or slow-flowing water.  Feed on a wide range of food including plants, small crustaceans, insects, and detritus. They live better in cold water.
Comets
Shubunkins
Family:  Cyprinidae
Origins:  Asia: central Asia and China, and Japan
Scientific Name:
Common Name:  Shubunkin
Size: 12"
Preferred pH range:  6.0 – 8.0
Temperature Range: 50-78 F  will hibernate under 50 F
Temperment: Community / Peaceful
Comments:  Standard shubunkins look like regular goldfish with a calico overlay.  “Calico” involves a mixture of blue, white, black, red, and orange colors in willy-nilly splotches.  Butterfly shubunkins develop a tail often as long as their body